International Journal of Librarianship <p align="justify" style="font-size: 16px;"><strong><em>The International Journal of Librarianship (IJoL)</em></strong>, a peer-reviewed open access journal of research and discussion dealing with all aspects of libraries and librarianship, welcomes articles relating to academic, research, public, school and special libraries and other information institutes.</p> International Journal of Librarianship en-US International Journal of Librarianship 2474-3542 Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: <br /><br />Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="License" href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and the initial publication in this journal. <br /><br />Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. <br /><br />Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a title="The effect of open access" href="" target="_blank">The Effect of Open Access</a>). Academic Librarians’ Perceptions of Productivity While Working From Home During the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>This research study assessed academic librarians’ perceptions of productivity while working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. Information was collected via an online survey that was sent out to several Association of College and Research Libraries listservs. Participants were academic librarians who work at large colleges and universities (FTE is greater than 15,000 students). Librarianship is a practice done mostly onsite, and with the sudden transition to remote work, academic librarians were forced to adapt to an unknown work environment with less access to the direct support of supervisors. This research demonstrates that the majority of academic librarians perceived themselves to be highly productive, and generally satisfied with their jobs, while working from home.</p> Amelia Rodarte Abby Moore Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 4 29 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.230 Academic Libraries in Ghana and Their Strategies for Coping with the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>In March 2020, institutions of higher education shut down in compliance with the directives of the President of Ghana to curb the spread of COVID-19. In July 2020, when the lockdown restrictions were eased, universities resumed teaching, learning, and research in order to continue the second semester of the 2020/2021 academic year. Universities and their libraries immediately adapted to online teaching and the delivery of services and resources to their patrons even though most of them were largely unprepared for this ‘new normal’ experience.</p> <p>This paper adopts the qualitative research design which comprised documentary evidence of experiences of ten public and private universities libraries in Ghana with regard to their resources, services, facilities and staff as well as impact on library users during the pandemic. Findings reveal the strict compliance of the COVID -19 protocols and sanitation practices, the increased use of online databases, social media interventions and virtual training among others. The different strategies adopted by university libraries in Ghana are worth sharing and lessons learned provide a unique opportunity for academic librarians to rethink their key roles and core values in supporting the teaching and learning of their institutions during this very challenging time and the future.</p> Monica Mensah Danquah Perpetua S. Dadzie Kwesi Gyesi Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 30 45 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.232 Creating New Correctional Programs and Services in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>This article explores the changed and changing COVID-19 pandemic programming implemented by Brooklyn Public Library and Queens Public Library's correctional outreach teams. Every program or service offered by the correctional outreach teams was required to change to meet the needs of the pandemic. Additionally, the libraries created two new services: Library Hub, a tablet program for people in Rikers Island jail complex, and Immediate Access, a technology and resource access program for people on parole. The article explains the new services, provides the findings associated with almost two years of providing these services, and presents insights and suggested best practices.</p> Jill Anderson Nili Ness Diego Sandoval-Hernandez Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 46 60 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.240 Library Services to Multicultural Populations through the Lens of History: A Literature Review <p>In today's increasingly globalized and interconnected world, libraries play a critical role in the integration of their culturally and ethnically diverse service populations into the mainstream of American society. This literature review traces the historical development of culturally responsive library service from its earliest format, readers advisory, to contemporary forms of library support available to multicultural communities. Current policy response to specific issues involved in library work with multicultural constituencies is also examined, along with the contributions of such work to the ongoing interdisciplinary global citizenship discourse.</p> Stan Trembach Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 61 73 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.259 Signage and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Facilities as Correlate to Utilisation of Information Resources in Federal Universities’ Libraries in South-South Zone of Nigeria <p>This study was aimed at investigating the extent to which signage and ICT facilities correlate to the utilisation of information resources in federal university libraries in South-South zone of Nigeria. The correlational research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions were answered while three hypotheses were tested. The population of the study comprised 32,190 registered library users for the 2017/2018 academic session and 776 library staff from six federal university libraries in south-south zones of Nigeria. The sample size for the study was 3,219 registered library users and 310 library staff representing 10% and 40% of the population respectively. A two-stage sampling technique of stratified and simple sampling techniques was used to select the sample size. Two Sets of instruments titled; “Signage and Information and Communication Technology Facilities Questionnaire (SICTFQ)” for the students and “Utilization of Information Resources Questionnaire (UIRQ)”were used for data collection. Face and content validity was ensured by three experts. The two instruments yielded reliability coefficients of 0.81 and 0.87 respectively with the use of Cronbach Alpha. Mean was used in answering research questions while Regression was used in testing the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. It was found that to a great extent signage relates to the utilisation of information resources while information and communication technology facilities is the vice versa. Based on the findings, it was concluded that jointly, signage and ICT facilities are significant correlate to the utilisation of information resources in federal university libraries in South–South zone of Nigeria. It was therefore recommended among others that library management should improve on the provision of signage by ensuring that well-designed signage suitable for the 21<sup>st</sup> century is placed at strategic location to guide library users on the utilisation of information resources in federal universities libraries in South-South zone Nigeria.</p> Mary Ofure Ig-Worlu Bernadette Ukaegbu Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 74 87 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.242 Government College Librarian’s Use of Social Media for Professional Development in Sindh, Pakistan <p>This study examined the use of social media in professional development by government college librarians of Sindh. Professional development is an integral part of all professions. Librarians and information professionals are required to have up-to-date information and skills regarding their profession. A Quantitative survey was employed to conduct this study. The target population consisted of government college librarians of Sindh, Pakistan. The survey was administered online. The findings demonstrated that most college librarians are aware of the importance of social media and use social media networks in professional development-related activities. Furthermore, findings identified that YouTube, WhatsApp, and Facebook are the most frequently used social media platforms in professional development. The findings help to design guidelines and provide basic information and communication technology skills training programs for better use of social media and optimum utilization of online professional development opportunities.</p> Mohsan Khaskheli Rafat Parveen Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 88 105 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.245 The Usage of Electronic Academic Database Resources Among Lecturers and Postgraduate Students in Western Delta University, Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria <p>This study investigated the usage of electronic academic databases resources by lecturers and postgraduate students in Western Delta University, Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria. Four objectives with conforming research questions guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The population of the study consisted of 134 lecturers and postgraduate students in WDU. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire with the title “Usage of Electronic Academic Database Resources Questionnaire (UEADRQ)”. Data was analyzed using frequency counts and percentages. The findings showed that there was a high level of awareness of the electronic academic database by the lecturers and postgraduate students. JSTOR, Elsevier, DOAJ, ProQuest, Science direct, and LexisNexis where been put to maximum usage. Meanwhile, NUC Virtual library, HINARI, Research4life, AGORA and EBSCO Host were used least frequently. The purposes of using the electronic academic datasets were for research, writing of seminar/conference paper, assignments/seminar presentations and getting up-to-date information with subject areas. Lack of search skill, slow internet bandwidth and incessant power outrage were some of the problems preventing against the effective usage of electronic academic database resources in WDU. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that electronic academic databases are vital information resources that need to be readily available in academic libraries for use by lecturers and students in the pursuit of their academic advancement. This study recommended that orientation, workshop and seminar should be organized by librarians and university authorities on how to acquire the needed search skills in order to be able to make adequate use of these electronic academic database resources in order to advance academic excellence.</p> Saadatu Eireyi-Fidelis Oghenetega Ivwighreghweta Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 106 112 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.250 Coping with Constant Obsolescence <p>Knowledge and skill obsolescence is a common obstacle in individual, organization, and society development. Thanks to the modern technologies, the rate of obsolescence accelerates rapidly in the information age. In the library workplace, obsolescence occurs constantly. We may be used to routines, but changes are inevitable as we have witnessed the evolution in library services and librarian workplace since the advent of the internet. To cope with obsolescence, it is crucial to have a lifelong learning mindset, make it a habit, and find ways to update our knowledge and skills to stay competent and serve the clientele effectively.</p> Di Su Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 147 154 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.256 Re-looking at S. R. Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science <p>S. R. Ranganathan’s work <em>Five Laws of Library Science</em> published in 1931 shaped library science and has served as a foundation for the profession of librarianship. The five laws of librarianship need to be revised as technology progressed in society. With the rise of digital libraries, however, it is essential to take a second look at these laws and see how they've held up in the face of new technologies. This study tries to explain how the theory is put into practice and to identify areas where it needs to be reformulated for the benefit of libraries. <em>The Five Laws of Library Science</em> by S. R. Ranganathan was reviewed for this research's literature study, and the five rules were combined with the traits of Generation Z to create new laws that are appropriate for this period. The research’s primary conclusions are (1) Information: Emphasize Content Over Container; (2) User Engagement; (3) Quantitative Information Analysis; and (4) Common Learning (Online and Offline).</p> Sigy George Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 155 161 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.258 Editorial Yongming Wang Xiaoai Ren Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 1 3 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.271 IFLA WLIC 2022: CALA Members Participation and Engagement <p>The 87<sup>th</sup> IFLA World Library and Information Congress (WLIC) was held July 25-29, 2022 in Dublin, Ireland. IFLA WLIC 2022 welcomed over 2000 delegates from 96 countries to Dublin, Ireland with the conference theme “Inspire, Engage, Enable, Connect.” The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is the leading international body representing the interests of library and information services and their users. It is the global voice of the library and information profession. In her address to delegates, IFLA President Barbara Lison expressed her delight at the atmosphere of the first in-person meeting after such a long period of isolation and travel restrictions. A number of members from the Chinese American Librarians Association (CALA) attended the Congress and spent several packed days of learning, reflection, discussion, and networking.</p> Michael Bailou Huang et al. Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 164 168 A Home for All Lebanese Libraries Dalal Rahme Copyright (c) 2022 Dalal Rahme 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 162 163 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.125 Grantseeking, Technology Renovation, and Creative Solutions to Support Library Access and Online Teaching and Learning During the Global COVID-19 Outbreak <p>The sudden global epidemiological outbreak in early spring 2020 challenged the academic libraries’ Access and Resource Sharing (ARS) department and prevented staff from providing the types of essential services that its users expect and require. With the full closure of campus and all courses moving online within a week, ARS staff were put on the front lines of finding ways to continue providing patrons with access to the library’s physical collections while library buildings were closed.</p> <p>This paper details how the ARS community and a large research university library’s ARS department responded and adapted to these rapid changes, acted creatively, and reinvented services through collaboration, creative solutions, grantseeking, and technology renovation. ARS staff continued to test a scan-beside-the-stacks methodology through a grant-funded project to create an Interlibrary Loan (ILL) mobile cart. This mobile cart allowed for a single employee to handle all items to complete the digital conversion of print materials and reduced the risk of coronavirus transfer between library staff members during the COVID-19 pandemic. An on-demand book digitization program in collaboration with multiple departments opened up access to resources to effectively fulfill patrons’ needs. Through these and other adaptations, ARS staff retained their professional commitment to provide materials and a high level of services to their users.</p> Xuan Pang Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 113 125 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.261 Factors Influencing the Choice of Librarianship as a Career Among Students in Tanzania <p>This study examined factors influencing the choice of librarianship as a career among students in Tanzania. A quantitative research approach, the descriptive survey study design, was adopted for this study. Data was collected using online questionnaires. Microsoft Office Excel 2010 was used in analyzing quantitative data. The findings of this study showed that the majority of the students were not aware of the librarianship career path until they joined the library and information science program. The findings of the study further revealed job opportunities, personal interest, and desire for helping people among the factors influencing students to join librarianship. Moreover, the study findings showed that negative perceptions towards librarianship, nature of its work, and lack of appreciation from the employers and clients were the factors that discouraged many of the students from joining librarianship. In general, the study concluded that the majority of the students chose librarianship as the last option after being denied from other professions. Accordingly, the study recommends more means of making students aware of librarianship as a career path; for example, mentors and teachers are trusted by students and can help promote awareness about librarianship careers. Additionally, employers and clients are advised to better appreciate the efforts devoted by librarians as a whole.</p> Martin Kanyika Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 126 137 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.254 Liaison Year One Redux <p>In this article, Edward Lim discusses the challenges and strategies he faced in his first year as the business liaison to the University of Connecticut’s School of Business. He captures the many communities formed by business librarians around a geographic region or topic, such as entrepreneurship. He notes publishing opportunities for business librarians. Lastly, Edward offers advice on professional development for those new and seasoned in business librarianship – mostly North American professional opportunities – from his perspective, having worked previously in Singapore, and Shanghai, China.</p> Junhao Edward Lim Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Librarianship 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 7 2 138 146 10.23974/ijol.2022.vol7.2.243